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Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic, egg-laying, vertebrate animals. Close to 10,000 residing species tends to make them essentially the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. They inhabit ecosystems across the world, through the Arctic to your Antarctic. Extant birds range in measurement from the five cm Bee Hummingbird on the two.seventy five m Ostrich. The fossil file signifies birds progressed from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic interval, all-around 160 million decades ago. Paleontologists regard birds as being the only clade of dinosaurs to have survived the Cretaceous?¡ìCPaleogene extinction occasion 65.five Ma in the past.
Modern-day birds are characterised by feathers, a beak without any teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a substantial metabolic pace, a four-chambered heart, and also a light-weight but sturdy skeleton. All dwelling species of birds have wings?athe now extinct flightless Moa of New Zealand was the sole exception. Wings are developed forelimbs, and most bird species can fly, with some exceptions, together with ratites, penguins, along with a quantity of varied endemic island species. Birds also have special digestive and respiratory methods which have been extremely adapted for flight. Some birds, particularly corvids and parrots, are amongst essentially the most intelligent animal species; quite a few bird species have been observed production and using resources, and lots of social species exhibit cultural transmission of know-how across generations.
Many species undertake long length annual migrations, and plenty of far more accomplish shorter irregular movements. Birds are social; they talk employing visual indicators and by calls and songs, and participate in social behaviours, which include cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. The vast greater part of bird species are socially monogamous, normally for 1 breeding year or so at a time, in some cases for years, but not often for living. Other species have polygynous or, hardly ever, polyandrous breeding methods. Eggs usually are laid in a nest and incubated because of the dad and mom. Most birds have an extended period of time of parental care after hatching.
Quite a few species are of economic relevance, typically as sources of foods acquired through hunting or farming. Some species, mainly songbirds and parrots, are well-liked as pets. Other utilizes incorporate the harvesting of guano for use as a fertiliser. Birds figure prominently in all facets of human culture from religion to poetry to well-liked audio. About 120?¡ìC130 species became extinct as a result of human exercise because the seventeenth century, and hundreds extra previous to then. At present about 1,200 species of birds are threatened with extinction by human activities, even though attempts are underway to safeguard them.

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